The International Spine Study Group works to consistently put forward high quality, meaningful research. The findings are shared via podium presentations, posters, and published manuscripts. Explore all publications from the ISSG here.

ISSG Publications 2009 2019

2020-22 Journal Publications (N=102) 

  1. Daniels AH, Reid D, Durand W, et al. Sexual Dysfunction Secondary to Lumbar Stiffness in Adult Spinal Deformity Patients Before and After Long-Segment Spinal Fusion. World Neurosurg 2020;139:e474–9.
  2. Durand WM, Daniels AH, Hamilton DK, et al. The spino-pelvic ratio: a novel global sagittal parameter associated with clinical outcomes in adult spinal deformity patients. Eur Spine J 2020;29:2354–61.
  3. Line B, Bess S, Lafage V, et al. Counseling Guidelines for Anticipated Postsurgical Improvements in Pain, Function, Mental Health, and Self-image for Different Types of Adult Spinal Deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:1118–27.
  4. Kim HJ, Wang SJS, Lafage R, et al. Recurrent Proximal Junctional Kyphosis: Incidence, Risk Factors, Revision Rates, and Outcomes at 2-Year Minimum Follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:E18–24.
  5. Segreto FA, Passias PGPG, Lafage R, et al. Incidence of acute, progressive, and delayed proximal junctional kyphosis over an 8-year period in adult spinal deformity patients. Oper Neurosurg 2020;18:75–82.
  6. Smith JS, Buell TJ, Shaffrey CI, et al. Prospective multicenter assessment of complication rates associated with adult cervical deformity surgery in 133 patients with minimum 1-year follow-up. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;33:588–600.
  7. Yanik EL, Kelly MP, Lurie JD, et al. Effect modifiers for patient-reported outcomes in operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis: a combined analysis of randomized and observational cohorts. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;33:17–26.
  8. Bortz C, Passias PG, Pierce KE, et al. Radiographic benefit of incorporating the inflection between the cervical and thoracic curves in fusion constructs for surgical cervical deformity patients. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2020;11:131–8.
  9. Goldschmidt E, Angriman F, Agarwal N, et al. A New Piece of the Puzzle to Understand Cervical Sagittal Alignment: Utilizing a Novel Angle δto Describe the Relationship among T1 Vertebral Body Slope, Cervical Lordosis, and Cervical Sagittal Alignment. Clin Neurosurg 2020;86:446–51.
  10. Jain A, Yeramaneni S, Kebaish KM, et al. Cost-Utility Analysis of rhBMP-2 Use in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:1009–15.
  11. Passias PG, Bortz CA, Lafage V, et al. Durability of satisfactory functional outcomes following surgical adult spinal deformity correction: A 3-year survivorship analysis. Oper Neurosurg 2020;18:118–25.
  12. Kim HJ, Virk S, Elysee J, et al. The morphology of cervical deformities: A two-step cluster analysis to identify cervical deformity patterns. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;32:353–9.
  13. Soroceanu A, Smith JS, Lau D, et al. Establishing the minimum clinically important difference in neck disability index and modified japanese orthopaedic association scores for adult cervical deformity. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;33:441–5.
  14. Ames CP, Smith JS, Gum JL, et al. Utilization of Predictive Modeling to Determine Episode of Care Costs and to Accurately Identify Catastrophic Cost Nonwarranty Outlier Patients in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Step Toward Bundled Payments and Risk Sharing. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:E252–65.
  15. Beyer G, Khalifé M, Lafage R, et al. Pelvic Compensation in Sagittal Malalignment: How Much Retroversion Can the Pelvis Accommodate? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:E203–9.
  16. Protopsaltis TS, Ramchandran S, Tishelman JC, et al. The Importance of C2 Slope, a Singular Marker of Cervical Deformity, Correlates with Patient-reported Outcomes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:184–92.
  17. Kim HJ, Yao YC, Shaffrey CI, et al. Neurological Complications and Recovery Rates of Patients With Adult Cervical Deformity Surgeries. Glob Spine J. Epub ahead of print 2020. DOI: 10.1177/2192568220975735.
  18. Lafage R, Beyer G, Schwab F, et al. Risk Factor Analysis for Proximal Junctional Kyphosis After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A New Simple Scoring System to Identify High-Risk Patients. Glob Spine J 2020;10:863–70.
  19. Daniels AH, Reid DBC, Durand WM, et al. Assessment of Patient Outcomes and Proximal Junctional Failure Rate of Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity Undergoing Caudal Extension of Previous Spinal Fusion. World Neurosurg 2020;139:e449–54.
  20. Durand WM, Daniels AH, Hamilton DK, et al. Artificial Intelligence Models Predict Operative Versus Nonoperative Management of Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity with 86% Accuracy. World Neurosurg 2020;141:e239–53.
  21. Virk S, Elysee J, Gupta M, et al. Defining an Algorithm of Treatment for Severe Cervical Deformity Using Surgeon Survey and Treatment Patterns. World Neurosurg 2020;139:e541–7.
  22. Yang J, Lafage R, Gum JL, et al. Group-based trajectory modeling: A novel approach to classifying discriminative functional status following adult spinal deformity surgery: Study of a 3-year follow-up group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:903–10.
  23. Decker S, Lafage R, Krettek C, et al. Is sacral extension a risk factor for early proximal junctional kyphosis in adult spinal deformity surgery? Asian Spine J;14. Epub ahead of print 2020. DOI: 10.31616/ASJ.2018.0314.
  24. Horn SR, Passias PG, Oh C, et al. Predicting the combined occurrence of poor clinical and radiographic outcomes following cervical deformity corrective surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;32:182–90.
  25. Passias PG, Segreto FA, Bortz CA, et al. Probability of severe frailty development among operative and nonoperative adult spinal deformity patients: an actuarial survivorship analysis over a 3-year period. Spine J 2020;20:1276–85.
  26. Protopsaltis TS, Soroceanu A, Tishelman JC, et al. Should Sagittal Spinal Alignment Targets for Adult Spinal Deformity Correction Depend on Pelvic Incidence and Age? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:250–7.
  27. Mummaneni PV, Park P, Shaffrey CI, et al. The MISDEF2 algorithm: An updated algorithm for patient selection in minimally invasive deformity surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;32:221–8.
  28. Daniels AH, Reid DBC, Durand WM, et al. Upper-thoracic versus lower-thoracic upper instrumented vertebra in adult spinal deformity patients undergoing fusion to the pelvis: Surgical decision-making and patient outcomes. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;32:600–6.
  29. Virk S, Passias P, Lafage R, et al. Intraoperative alignment goals for distinctive sagittal morphotypes of severe cervical deformity to achieve optimal improvements in health-related quality of life measures. Spine J 2020;20:1267–75.
  30. Passias PG, Horn SR, Oh C, et al. Predicting the Occurrence of Postoperative Distal Junctional Kyphosis in Cervical Deformity Patients. Neurosurgery 2020;86:E38–46.
  31. Klineberg EO, Passias PG, Poorman GW, et al. Classifying Complications: Assessing Adult Spinal Deformity 2-Year Surgical Outcomes. Glob Spine J 2020;10:896–907.
  32. Ogura Y, Gum JL, Hostin RA, et al. Cost-effectiveness of surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity: comparison of posterior-only versus anteroposterior approach. Spine J 2020;20:1464–70.
  33. Line BG, Bess S, Lafage R, et al. Effective Prevention of Proximal Junctional Failure in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery Requires a Combination of Surgical Implant Prophylaxis and Avoidance of Sagittal Alignment Overcorrection. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:258–67.
  34. Wang MY, Uribe J, Mummaneni PV, et al. Minimally Invasive Spinal Deformity Surgery: Analysis of Patients Who Fail to Reach Minimal Clinically Important Difference. World Neurosurg 2020;137:e499–505.
  35. Yagi M, Ames CP, Hosogane N, et al. Lower Satisfaction After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery in Japan Than in the United States Despite Similar SRS-22 Pain and Function Scores: A Propensity-Score Matched Analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:E1097–104.
  36. Passias PG, Horn SR, Soroceanu A, et al. Development of a Novel Cervical Deformity Surgical Invasiveness Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:116–23.
  37. Passias PG, Segreto FA, Horn SR, et al. Fatty infiltration of the cervical extensor musculature, cervical sagittal balance, and clinical outcomes: An analysis of operative adult cervical deformity patients. J Clin Neurosci 2020;72:134–41.
  38. Wang MY, Park P, Tran S, et al. Intermediate-term clinical and radiographic outcomes with less invasive adult spinal deformity surgery: patients with a minimum follow-up of 4 years. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020;162:1393–400.
  39. Plais N, Bao H, Lafage R, et al. The Clinical Impact of Global Coronal Malalignment Is Underestimated in Adult Patients With Thoracolumbar Scoliosis. Spine Deform 2020;8:105–13.
  40. Pierce KE, Passias PG, Alas H, et al. Does Patient Frailty Status Influence Recovery following Spinal Fusion for Adult Spinal Deformity?: An Analysis of Patients with 3-Year Follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020;45:E397–405.
  41. Cruz DL, Ayres EW, Spiegel MA, et al. Validation of the recently developed Total Disability Index: A single measure of disability in neck and back pain patients. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;32:533–41.
  42. Park P, Than KD, Mummaneni PV, et al. Factors affecting approach selection for minimally invasive versus open surgery in the treatment of adult spinal deformity: Analysis of a prospective, nonrandomized multicenter study. J Neurosurg Spine 2020;33:601–6.
  43. Kim HJ, York PJ, Elysee JC, et al. Cervical, Thoracic, and Spinopelvic Compensation After Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK): Does Location of PJK Matter? Glob Spine J 2020;10:6–12.
  44. Segreto FA, Passias PG, Brown AE, et al. The Influence of Surgical Intervention and Sagittal Alignment on Frailty in Adult Cervical Deformity. Oper Neurosurg 2020;18:583–9.
  45. Passias PG, Alas H, Bess S, et al. Patient-related and radiographic predictors of inferior health-related quality-of-life measures in adult patients with nonoperative spinal deformity. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;34:907–13.
  46. Lafage R, Schwab F, Elysee J, et al. Surgical Planning for Adult Spinal Deformity: Anticipated Sagittal Alignment Corrections According to the Surgical Level. Glob Spine J. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1177/2192568220988504.
  47. Pierce KE, Passias PG, Brown AE, et al. Prioritization of realignment associated with superior clinical outcomes for cervical deformity patients. Neurospine 2021;18:506–14.
  48. Daniels AH, Durand WM, Lafage R, et al. Lateral Thoracolumbar Listhesis as an Independent Predictor of Disability in Adult Scoliosis Patients: Multivariable Assessment Before and After Surgical Realignment. Neurosurgery 2021;89:1080–6.
  49. Protopsaltis TS, Stekas N, Smith JS, et al. Surgical outcomes in rigid versus flexible cervical deformities. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;34:716–24.
  50. Passias PG, Pierce KE, Brown AE, et al. Redefining cervical spine deformity classification through novel cutoffs: An assessment of the relationship between radiographic parameters and functional neurological outcomes. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:157–64.
  51. Alas H, Passias PG, Brown AE, et al. Predictors of serious, preventable, and costly medical complications in a population of adult spinal deformity patients. Spine J 2021;21:1559–66.
  52. Katsuura Y, Lafage R, Kim HJ, et al. Alignment Targets, Curve Proportion and Mechanical Loading: Preliminary Analysis of an Ideal Shape Toward Reducing Proximal Junctional Kyphosis. Glob Spine J. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1177/2192568220987188.
  53. Kim HJ, Virk S, Elysee J, et al. Surgical strategy for the management of cervical deformity is based on type of cervical deformity. J Clin Med;10. Epub ahead of print November 1, 2021. DOI: 10.3390/jcm10214826.
  54. Passias P, Passfall L, Horn S, et al. Risk-benefit assessment of major versus minor osteotomies for flexible and rigid cervical deformity correction. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:263–8.
  55. Yao YC, Kim HJ, Bannwarth M, et al. Lowest Instrumented Vertebra Selection to S1 or Ilium Versus L4 or L5 in Adult Spinal Deformity: Factors for Consideration in 349 Patients With a Mean 46-Month Follow-Up. Glob Spine J. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1177/21925682211009178.
  56. Smith JS, Kelly MP, Yanik EL, et al. Operative versus nonoperative treatment for adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis at 5-year follow-up: Durability of outcomes and impact of treatment-related serious adverse events. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;35:67–79.
  57. Scheer JK, Lenke LG, Smith JS, et al. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for 138 Patients with Severe Sagittal Deformity at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up: A Case Series. Oxford University Press; 2021.
  58. Buell TJ, Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, et al. Multicenter assessment of surgical outcomes in adult spinal deformity patients with severe global coronal malalignment: Determination of target coronal realignment threshold. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;34:399–412.
  59. Alas H, Passias P, Diebo B, et al. Cervical deformity patients with baseline hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis differ in surgical treatment and radiographic outcomes. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:279–86.
  60. Sciubba D, Jain A, Kebaish KM, et al. Development of a Preoperative Adult Spinal Deformity Comorbidity Score That Correlates With Common Quality and Value Metrics: Length of Stay, Major Complications, and Patient-Reported Outcomes. Glob Spine J 2021;11:146–53.
  61. Mummaneni PV, Hussain I, Shaffrey CI, et al. The minimally invasive interbody selection algorithm for spinal deformity. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;34:741–8.
  62. Passias PG, Alas H, Naessig S, et al. Timing of conversion to cervical malalignment and proximal junctional kyphosis following surgical correction of adult spinal deformity: A 3-year radiographic analysis. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;34:830–8.
  63. Sheikh Alshabab B, Gupta MC, Lafage R, et al. Does Achieving Global Spinal Alignment Lead to Higher Patient Satisfaction and Lower Disability in Adult Spinal Deformity? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:1105–10.
  64. Lafage R, Ang B, Schwab F, et al. Depression Symptoms Are Associated with Poor Functional Status Among Operative Spinal Deformity Patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:447–56.
  65. Passias P, Brown A, Alas H, et al. The impact of postoperative neurologic complications on recovery kinetics in cervical deformity surgery. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:393–400.
  66. Pierce KE, Passias PG, Brown AE, et al. Predictors of Superior Recovery Kinetics in Adult Cervical Deformity Correction: An Analysis Using a Novel Area Under the Curve Methodology. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:559–66.
  67. Chou D, Chan AY, Park P, et al. Revision Surgery Rates After Minimally Invasive Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Correlation with Roussouly Spine Type at 2-Year Follow-Up? World Neurosurg 2021;148:e482–7.
  68. Horn SR, Passias PG, Passfall L, et al. Improvement in some Ames-ISSG cervical deformity classification modifier grades may correlate with clinical improvement. J Clin Neurosci 2021;89:297–304.
  69. Yagi M, Ames CP, Hosogane N, et al. Comparable satisfaction and clinical outcomes after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the adult (AISA) between the US and Japan. J Orthop Sci. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.jos.2021.08.014.
  70. Passias PG, Brown AE, Bortz C, et al. A Risk-Benefit Analysis of Increasing Surgical Invasiveness Relative to Frailty Status in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:1087–96.
  71. Morse KW, Lafage R, Passias P, et al. A Comparison of Three Different Positioning Techniques on Surgical Corrections and Postoperative Alignment in Cervical Spinal Deformity (CD) Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:567–70.
  72. Passias PG, Bortz C, Pierce KE, et al. Appropriate Risk Stratification and Accounting for Age-Adjusted Reciprocal Changes in the Thoracolumbar Spine Reduces the Incidence and Magnitude of Distal Junctional Kyphosis in Cervical Deformity Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:1437–47.
  73. Durand WM, Lafage R, Hamilton DK, et al. Artificial intelligence clustering of adult spinal deformity sagittal plane morphology predicts surgical characteristics, alignment, and outcomes. Eur Spine J 2021;30:2157–66.
  74. Bannwarth M, Smith JS, Bess S, et al. Use of rhBMP-2 for adult spinal deformity surgery: patterns of usage and changes over the past decade. Neurosurg Focus 2021;50:1–9.
  75. Neuman BJ, Harris AB, Klineberg EO, et al. Defining a Surgical Invasiveness Threshold for Increased Risk of a Major Complication Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:931–8.
  76. Pierce K, Passias P, Brown A, et al. Prioritization of realignment associated with superior clinical outcomes for surgical cervical deformity patients. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:311–7.
  77. Virk S, Platz U, Bess S, et al. Factors influencing upper-most instrumented vertebrae selection in adult spinal deformity patients: Qualitative case-based survey of deformity surgeons. J Spine Surg 2021;7:37–47.
  78. Plais N, Bao H, Lafage R, et al. Fractional Curve in Adult Spinal Deformity: Is it a Driver of or a Compensation for Coronal Malalignment? Clin Spine Surg 2021;34:E276–81.
  79. Ogura Y, Gum JL, Soroceanu A, et al. Practical answers to frequently asked questions for shared decision-making in adult spinal deformity surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;34:218–27.
  80. Passias PG, Pierce KE, Naessig S, et al. At What Point Should the Thoracolumbar Region Be Addressed in Patients Undergoing Corrective Cervical Deformity Surgery? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:E1113–8.
  81. Passias P, Horn S, Lafage V, et al. Effect of age-Adjusted alignment goals and distal inclination angle on the fate of distal junctional kyphosis in cervical deformity surgery. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:65–71.
  82. Passias P, Horn S, Oh C, et al. Predictive model for achieving good clinical and radiographic outcomes at one-year following surgical correction of adult cervical deformity. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021;12:228–35.
  83. Chan AK, Eastlack RK, Fessler RG, et al. Two- and three-year outcomes of minimally invasive and hybrid correction of adult spinal deformity. J Neurosurg Spine 2021;1–14.
  84. Kim HJ, Yao YC, Bannwarth M, et al. Cervicothoracic Versus Proximal Thoracic Lower Instrumented Vertebra Have Comparable Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes in Adult Cervical Deformity. Glob Spine J. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1177/21925682211017478.
  85. Gum JL, Line B, Carreon LY, et al. Reaching the medicare allowable threshold in adult spinal deformity surgery: multicenter cost analysis comparing actual direct hospital costs versus what the government will pay. Spine Deform. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s43390-021-00405-4.
  86. Klineberg EO, Wick JB, Lafage R, et al. Development and validation of a multidomain surgical complication classification system for adult spinal deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:E267–73.
  87. Pierce KE, Passias PG, Daniels AH, et al. Baseline Frailty Status Influences Recovery Patterns and Outcomes following Alignment Correction of Cervical Deformity. Neurosurgery 2021;88:1121–7.
  88. Gum JL, Shasti M, Yeramaneni S, et al. Improvement in SRS-22R Self-Image Correlate Most with Patient Satisfaction after 3-Column Osteotomy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021;46:822–7.
  89. Virk S, Lafage R, Bess S, et al. Are the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) Principles for Long Bone Fractures Applicable to 3-Column Osteotomy to Reduce Rod Fracture Rates? Clin Spine Surg. Epub ahead of print 2021. DOI: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000001289.
  90. Joshi RS, Lau D, Scheer JK, et al. State-of-the-art reviews predictive modeling in adult spinal deformity: applications of advanced analytics. Spine Deform 2021;9:1223–39.
  91. Buell TJ, Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, et al. Operative Treatment of Severe Scoliosis in Symptomatic Adults: Multicenter Assessment of Outcomes and Complications With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up. Neurosurgery 2021;89:1012–26.
  92. Wick JB, Le HV, Lafage R, et al. Assessment of Adult Spinal Deformity Complication Timing and Impact on 2-Year Outcomes Using a Comprehensive Adult Spinal Deformity Classification System. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:445–54.
  93. Le HV, Wick JB, Lafage R, et al. Association of findings on preoperative extension lateral cervical radiography with osteotomy type, approach, and postoperative cervical alignment after cervical deformity surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2022;36:93–8.
  94. Line B, Bess S, Gum JL, et al. Opioid use prior to surgery is associated with worse preoperative and postoperative patient reported quality of life and decreased surgical cost effectiveness for symptomatic adult spine deformity; A matched cohort analysis. North Am Spine Soc J;9. Epub ahead of print March 1, 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.xnsj.2021.100096.
  95. Le HV, Wick JB, Lafage R, et al. Surgical Factors and Treatment Severity for Perioperative Complications Predict Hospital Length of Stay in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:136–43.
  96. Passias PG, Bortz C, Pierce KE, et al. Comparing and Contrasting the Clinical Utility of Sagittal Spine Alignment Classification Frameworks: Roussouly Versus SRS-Schwab. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:455–62.
  97. Lafage R, Smith JS, Elysee J, et al. Sagittal age-adjusted score (SAAS) for adult spinal deformity (ASD) more effectively predicts surgical outcomes and proximal junctional kyphosis than previous classifications. Spine Deform 2022;10:121–31.
  98. Passias PG, Ahmad W, Kummer N, et al. Examination of the Economic Burden of Frailty in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity Undergoing Surgical Intervention. Neurosurgery 2022;90:148–53.
  99. Passias PG, Brown AE, Bortz C, et al. Increasing Cost Efficiency in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Identifying Predictors of Lower Total Costs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:21–6.
  100. Durand WM, Babu JM, Hamilton DK, et al. Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery Is Associated with Increased Productivity and Decreased Absenteeism From Work and School. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:287–94.
  101. Daniels AH, Durand WM, Steinbaum AJ, et al. Examination of Adult Spinal Deformity Patients Undergoing Surgery with Implanted Spinal Cord Stimulators and Intrathecal Pumps. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:227–33.
  102. Durand WM, DiSilvestro KJ, Kim HJ, et al. Low-Density Pedicle Screw Constructs Are Associated with Lower Incidence of Proximal Junctional Failure in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2022;47:463–9.